To assist all those working in the market research and opinion industry ESOMAR maintains a comprehensive glossary of market research and marketing terms.

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Observation Bias
Observation Check
Observation Study
Observed Value
Occasion Image
Omnibus Study
On-Air Test
One Group Pre-Test - Post-Test
One-Shot Case Study
One-Sided Question
One-Stage Sampling
One-Tailed Test
A test where the null hypothesis is expressed directionally, eg the proportion having a characteristic is more than x%. One-tailed tests are more popular than two-tailed tests because the directional result makes the findings more actionable.

One-Way Mirror
Online Discussion Group (aka Virtual Group)
Open-Ended Questions (aka Unstructured Questions)
Opening Questions
Opinion Poll
Optimum Allocation
Order Bias (aka Position Bias or Sequential Bias)
Ordinal Scale (aka Ranked Scale)
Osgood Scale
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