A draft text of ESOMAR’s 28 Questions to help Research buyers of Online Samples is currently out for consultation. 

The aim of these 28 questions is to increase transparency and raise awareness of the key issues in helping researchers consider whether an online sampling approach is fit for their purpose. Notes on the context explain why the questions should be asked and which issues researchers should expect to be covered in the answers.

This revises ESOMAR’s 26 Questions to help Research Buyers of Online Panels, which were also designed to facilitate consistent terminology for providers to state how they maintain quality to enable buyers to compare the services of different suppliers.

ESOMAR has updated the text to recognise the ongoing development of techniques. Whilst some of the questions remain constant, new questions have been added to incorporate new techniques and new technology in this area including intercept and multi-source sampling, the role of routers, and how to ensure consistency over time when blending samples.

The project team includes:


  • Adam Phillips, Chair of ESOMAR’s Legal and Professional Standards Committees
  • Reg Baker, COO, Market Strategies International
  • Pete Cape, Global Knowledge Director, SSI
  • Mike Cooke, Director: Global Panel Management, GfK
  • Efrain Ribeiro, COO, Lightspeed Research
  • George Terhanian, Chief Strategy and Product Officer, Toluna USA


These 28 Questions complement ESOMAR's Guideline for Online Research which was revised in 2011 to add updated legal and ethical guidance and new sections on privacy notices, cookies, downloadable technology and interactive mobile.

Please read the text and send your comments and suggestions by 22 June to


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